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Material selection in green packaging design

2019/5/4   点击:2562

 

In the early stage of industrialization, seldom consider the material impact on the environment, but in the green packaging design in the choice of materials is very important, it not only determines the products with the extent of the damage to the environment determines the recyclability of the product at the same time, also in how to select the appropriate materials for packaging product design make the maximum to meet the requirements of sustainable production is a complex task, is also a consideration of material performance, environmental factors and the process of domain knowledge, therefore, the designer in plastic bottles, in-depth and xi 'an xi 'an food cans, plastic bottles of shaanxi, shaanxi food cans, shaanxi cosmetic bottles, Shaanxi bodi plastic has a detailed and specific understanding of packaging materials with environmental protection functions and applied in green packaging design practice, to minimize the pollution of materials, to maintain the ecological balance of natural environment and social environment, but also to promote the use of earth resources packaging industry from consumption to recycling.

I. characteristics of green packaging design materials

1. Properties and applications of materials

The characteristics of materials often determine the efficiency of giving full play to the energy of materials in the process of production and use. Green packaging materials should be selected low energy consumption, low cost, less pollution materials, at the same time the selected materials are easy to process, in the process of no pollution or less pollution. For example, the self-destructive plastic in self-destructive materials designed and developed by China's scientific research institutions for environmental protection is a special ultraviolet photosensitizer added in polyolefin, which can be rapidly decomposed after the use of waste. Therefore, the selection and application of green packaging materials mainly consider the following factors. 1) when designing similar packaging products, try to use the same packaging materials to facilitate recycling. WHIRLPOOL, a German firm, has cut the number of materials it USES for packaging from 20 to four, reducing the cost of waste treatment to 50%. 2) give full consideration to the recycling of materials, which not only saves the raw materials, but also is conducive to the recycling of resources. 3) the degradability of materials should be considered in the design. In 1997, the state environmental protection bureau announced the environmental labeling and product technical requirements for degradable plastic packaging products, and implemented the labeling recognition system for degradable plastic packaging products, which will greatly improve the current situation of plastic packaging pollution. 4) design and produce reusable packaging supplies. For example, Japan's asahi, Sapporo and other beer companies developed a super strength bottle, its life than the original bottle to enhance one time, for customers to use the time up to 16 years, environmental significance is greatly excellent in the one-time packaging.

2. Recognition of traditional natural packaging materials



Our ancestors in a long time ago began to directly use the existing materials around them, the use of their labor and life of the things for packaging, forming a unique green packaging quality connotation and national packaging style, which contains a simple natural value and environmental implications still do not lose its dazzling brilliance.

Plant leaf packaging. These materials include bamboo leaves, lotus leaves, reed leaves and so on. Guangdong gourd tea, for example, it is directly applied nature of bamboo, the brown dust the top with thin straw rope tied up, form attached to the small ball, as in the growth of the northern waist gourd, this kind of method of tea packaging in the bamboo leaves of native aromatic flavour to long constant, drinking, can untie the straw rope above at any time, remove the dust, the rest of the stored in the block below to continue closely.

Straw packing. This is a unique form of packaging in yunnan, China, where people have long cultivated rice and raised poultry. As the exchange of eggs for goods, with elastic and strong straw woven into a mesh bag can accommodate the eggs, the eggs wrapped in the straw net pink, fresh, give a person a kind of original taste of natural and fresh feeling, there are yunnan eggs with the rope to wear it.

Bamboo woven packaging. Our ancestors in generations of working life and bamboo has formed an indissoluble bond with the bamboo basket as packaging utensils are still used by people. Basket is by tenacity is very strong and strong bamboo strip is concise braid, above do not have redundant trivial detail, give natural material peculiar plain aesthetic feeling, all sorts of food are placed among them, the clearance of fine bamboo strip is transparent, natural, food is not easy to spoil.

Green packaging design as a new design ideas and methods. Has aroused the world's wide recognition and attention. At the same time, it also drives the attention to the natural environment in each stage of the cycle of green packaging products, and forms the green packaging product project with green packaging product design as the leading role. Therefore, it is very necessary and urgent to put forward green packaging design as a strategy, which will promote the development of China's art design and packaging industry to better and faster humanized survival direction. The introduction of green packaging design into the field of packaging engineering also provides designers with a new thinking point and opens up a new path. As a packaging designer, we need to pay more attention to the technical system and aesthetic ideas in this field. We believe that the promotion of green packaging design, the creation of sustainable development of ecological, humane packaging space, will become the mainstream of packaging design.

Two, green packaging design principles, methods

Green packaging design must follow the principle of 3 r1d, namely reduce their use of packaging materials, packaging container pack again use, recycling use of packaging materials and packaging materials are biodegradable, but how to implement the basic thought to conventional product design and development process, in order to form a practical and feasible on the overall situation of green packaging design process, is the key to the general acceptance and application of the green packaging design, design of green packaging products process basically has the following methods:

1, function, and thinking of green packaging design from the function, main is the purpose of the in order to make the product more reasonable, its basic idea is a detailed analysis of the features of the product to determine what is the most basic features, to evaluate the implementation of these functions is consumes less material and energy, the minimum load to the environment. The design process is as follows:

1) quantitatively define the product's functional value and identify the basic parameters corresponding to the functional value;

2) list the objective, theoretical and practical measurement parameters for the specific functions of packaging products;

3) to evaluate the material and energy consumption on each functional unit, and conduct analysis based on theoretical and practical measurement parameters, so as to study whether these functions can be realized with less material and energy consumption;

4) compare new packaging products with reference products, and optimize new product design and development strategies.

2. Structure: analyze the green packaging design from the shape and structure of small packaging products, mainly in order to make the packaging structure more scientific, practical and beautiful. At this level, first of all, the basic concept of product attributes should be carefully determined, and how to improve the impact of the product on the environment should be considered in its framework. In the design process, both the functional structure and the material structure of the product should be analyzed. In terms of functional structure:

1) make clear the shape, volume, category, attribute and transportation scope of the packaged goods, analyze and determine the structure function or the function of the main body of the packaged products, and further define the purpose of using the packaged products.

2) analyze the overall structure and function of packaging design, and evaluate whether relevant functions can be combined or the number of accessories can be reduced, and whether materials are used in the most reasonable way.

3) whether it can also save materials and reduce volume and weight. In terms of material structure :(1) the properties of packaging materials are reasonably configured with the purposes of packaging; (2) make an overall analysis of the material composition, detachable property and practical effect of the product; (3) try to reduce the number of materials in the same packaging products for classification and recycling.

3. Cycle cycle: green product design is considered from the cycle cycle of packaging products, so as to facilitate the overall description of resource consumption and environmental load in the whole cycle cycle of products. 2) list the total consumption of packaging materials and evaluate the energy consumption in the state of raw materials; 3) determine the energy consumption of packaging products during transportation and use, and determine the recycling rate of recycled materials in packaging products; 5) determine the amount of final waste of the packaging products.

4. Evaluation. The components of packaging products and social and ecological factors are the main evaluation index system of green packaging design. The evaluation of the components of the product is as follows: 1) to decompose the packaged products into relatively independent parts and briefly describe their manufacturing process; 2) data analysis and assessment of environmental problems and health damage that may occur in the production process of each part; 3) adopt special manufacturing process for the parts that may have pollution problems, or replace the parts with harmful pollution through rationalized product functions and structures. The evaluation of ecological factors mainly refers to: 1) environmental attribute index, that is, the index related to environment in the safety cycle of packaging products, including air pollution index, liquid pollution index, solid pollution index and noise pollution index. 2) resource attribute index, namely material resource index, design resource index, information resource index and human resource index used in the product cycle. 3) energy attribute index refers to the utilization rate and recycling energy consumption of green packaging products. In view of the above evaluation elements and indicators, on the one hand, the evaluation is conducted with reference to the current environmental protection standards, industry standards and relevant policies and regulations. On the other hand, existing products and related technologies are taken as the reference to evaluate by comparison.

Iii. Green packaging design

For a long time, people to the understanding and practice of packaging design is based on market demand and product promotion, its design ideas of the positioning consider goods and sales focus on two areas, people have to think that the packaging often is more important than the built-in product, change the packing design means to change the commodity itself, but rarely involves the environmental problems in the whole design process. Since the 1990s, environmental challenges have made people make appropriate responses in the process of packaging design. Many packaging enterprises and design companies have started to implement environmental protection thoughts from the design leader. Sonoco, one of the world's largest packaging companies, has adopted environmental protection measures for its products since 1990. It has proposed to the society that once we make it, we should promise to recycle it and begin to recycle the used products from users to prevent the spread of packaging pollution in the society. At the same time, how to consider the influence in the design has become the hotspot of design research in recent years. Green packaging design packaging products as organic element of human existence in the human body and the environment pollution-free, recyclable or renewable materials to design packaging products, the requirements from the packaging product market demand, design, development, production, transportation, sales, after using waste recycling cycle, each phase and cycle products and packaging design and environment influence each other. It also emphasizes that under the premise of following the ecological law and social aesthetic law, human beings use scientific strategies and means to make man-made objects conform to the natural and humanistic characteristics. What it brings to people is not a short visual shock, but a lasting material and spiritual enjoyment. Green packaging design mainly involves the following aspects.

1. Green packaging design will be committed to the implementation of environmental protection strategies and establish new methods and tools to regulate the impact of packaging products on the environment at each stage of its cycle. 2) effectively monitor and track the input and output of packaging products during the use of logistics; 3) establish an assessment model for environmental protection, and carry out risk assessment for design and production behaviors that are harmful to the environment.

2. Research and develop packaging materials and production processes beneficial to human health and environmental protection. At the design stage, sufficient market research and technical analysis should be conducted on the requirements of packaging products, such as the scope and extent of human health damage caused by products in the process of production, use, waste recycling and reproduction, and design measures to control and eliminate pollution sources. Packaging material is the logistics media design, especially the articles for daily use such as food packaging, clothing used in the field of packaging materials, part of the submission for the contact and the use of dust, attachments chemicals and gas dispersion effect to the health of people is very difficult to determine and unstoppable, but the designer's environmental protection consciousness to the choice of materials at the design stage to a non-toxic, non-polluting, recyclable and biodegradable. Reasonable design of packaging structure, from the function, consumable materials and printing technology to achieve maximum reduction of packaging products, avoid packaging structure, level, volume of the complex superposition, excessive packaging, grandiose packaging phenomenon, with no function mysterious device misleading consumers.

3. The goal of green packaging design should be determined from each stage of packaging product cycle. Green packaging design is not only an art discipline, but also an engineering discipline. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the packaging engineering idea and design from the overall perspective of the system cycle. Once the packaging product design scheme is demonstrated and determined, the impact of the organic cycle of the whole product on the environment has become a set pattern. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the environmental protection measures in the production, transportation and recycling stages simultaneously in the design leading stage.

1) at the design stage, I fully mastered the market survey and material information, and put forward the green packaging design scheme, which mainly includes: conception, determination of design parameters, such as the volume and measurement value of packaging items, preliminary capacity or allowable deviation parameters; The selection of packaging materials is non-toxic and harmless, recyclable and renewable, degradable, high-performance synthetic materials and native natural materials should consider the relevant environmental factors; Design expression, include the modelling style of configuration, structure, graph, character, colour to want to accord with the aesthetic need of green product, avoid vision pollution strictly. In the design stage, we should strengthen the entrance control of green packaging design from the aspects of material selection and subsequent production procedures.

2) in the production stage, full consideration should be given to how to improve the manufacturing process. The current research results show that the environmental load in each measurement unit is proportional to the processing time, and the successful design strategy is how to shorten the processing time.

3) in the transport stage, the design improvement of transport packaging is to consider the properties, characteristics, USES and transport modes of different commodities according to the potential damage of commodities in the transport process, so as to reduce the energy consumption and at the same time consider how to reduce the load of product packaging on the environment.

4) in the consumption stage, it mainly considers how the user can save energy, reduce pollution, facilitate maintenance and extend the service life of relevant packaging supplies.

5) in the recycling stage, the first stage is to consider how to facilitate the recycling of packaging products in the design, and through the design of structure and materials, disassembly and classification after pre-use. Second, it is necessary to consider how packaging materials can be recycled conveniently. Because it is difficult to extract pure substances from the mixture, and some substances cannot be separated from the mixture, the green and reasonable configuration of materials must be considered in the design.